Material analysis involves the Discovery of the chemical and physical properties of all kinds of substances, including solids, liquids and gases. From the seemingly countless number of properties which could be measured or determined, the analyst performs the task of providing data on those properties that are of primary significance for the specific applications demanded of the substances or these substances are being tested for.
The analysis of substances can be broken down by the kind of material of which the sample is made. The composition of solid bulk material can be analyzed by electron microprobe and x ray, including energy dispersive X ray, wavelength dispersive x ray and x-ray fluorescence. Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy or Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy is used to inspect for defects or impurities in solid bulk material evaluation. The composition of solid surface material could be examined by Electron Spectroscopy, Auger Electron Spectroscopy and Ion Scattering Spectrometry. Analysis of the composition of sound film material uses Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy or Neutron Depth Profiling.
The analysis of liquids requires different measurement procedures. Inorganic liquids are analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma, Atomic Emission Spectroscopy or ICP/Mass Spectrometry. Organic fluids use Paper Chromatography, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, Infrared Spectroscopy or Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis. Gas analysis uses many of the same procedures that are used on fluids. It may employ Gas Chromatography, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, and Infrared Spectroscopy, gas detectors or Mass Spectrometry.
Any substance analysis should be Began at the macro or observable level. Whenever this was accomplished, it is time to proceed to the micro level. There are two sorts of modern microscopes: those using light to form the picture and the ones that use electrons. Even though microscopes using light have a history more than 300 decades, they continue to improve continuously. Lens design improvements have practically eliminated serious aberrations. There are now many useful and important strategies to acquire light microscope images, based on the properties being researched.
1 limitation of the standard Light microscope in the sphere of material analysis is the depth of field issue. The introduction of the electron microscope eliminated this problem by using electrons rather than light to illuminate the sample. It produced images that could almost be interpreted intuitively. The key development that made the electron microscope much more useful was the evolution of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy that was a flexible tool for elemental chemical analysis. This made it feasible to obtain both morphological and chemical information in precisely the exact same time, although important analysis must nevertheless be performed on polished samples as opposed to on rough surfaces.